The Linguistic Construction of Age.
Jl. Majapahit No. 62, Mataram 83125, Indonesia.
Abstract : This response paper is explored the linguistic construction of age in sasak Kawo village communities. Even there are many small villages in central of lombok very unique to investigate due to express their languages within civililizing on their culture. Therefore, today by appearance of their unique languge use in sasak communities especially in the small village which is called by Kawo sasak communities is interesting one to write. As commonly terms of language through communication by human being in the world to send the whole things as messeges to each others. Thus, people in the Kawo village are used their first language as habitus ways to show their respect or the politeness that words itself on the social members??™ interaction. For an example, in practicing ???verb??? they are always decided to use lingistic construcion of age by always add suffix /??“z/ into the last letter vowel on the verb used order in the particular situations.
Keywords: Linguistic Construction, Verb, Age and Kawo Sasak Communities.
Introduction: Many people in the world in terms to show their politeness in various ways means by used multilingual and sometimes variety used of gestures. Relate to these situations ???politeness???, people are showed their abilities to find out what are they needed somehow into many ways to get their purpose during the situations toward others at social interactions. As Jenkins 1996, Eckert 2000, and a host of others have argued, the construction of social identity and community is about the making of meaning (Qing Zhang : 26:2005). In concidering with these case, there is no wrong with languages used for an interaction and communication because that is a habitus among normal beings. Furthermore, politeness is a way of negotiating and demonstrating awareness of social position interactants express attitudes (norms) toward others either on large or small group in the social number of interaction.
Started to the point issue ???is there any rules aplied with sasak communities to form their language???. Then, present the linguistic construction of age in the Kawo village as sasak communities are played some rules for communication to each others is my concern here. In Speaking of linguistics surely about humans??™ knowledge (Michael Kenstowicz, 1979:1). In my humble opinion linguistic is once source to analyze of unique sound produced by sasak communities especially people in the Kawo village while due to the interactions.
Discussion: In this discussion concern about how the language works in Sasak communities. Based on this idea, sasak people applied terms of language to symbolize their abilities, attitudes and norms. Therefore, coming from the concept it could be answer an issue (is there any rules aplied with sasak communities to form their language).
If we talk about language as the first thought in our mind surely that is the first language. Many people in the world unconcious to acquire their first language especially in the first language acquisition. As Muriel Saville-Troike (2006:5) said in his book introduction to language and linguistics, the First Language (L1) we were acquired during childhood ??“normally beginning before the age of about three years -and that they are learned as part of growing up among people who speak them. Eventhough, we are not relized that the process and entrue upon use it but we could understand and always able to practice it fluently. Susan M.Gass and Larry Selinker (2008:10) In the third edition of Second Language Acquisition, there some informations which that lexicon exist to list of everywords and it??™s stored by native speaker. Therefore, when they want to pronounciate of words in every times always coming up in their mind by sudenly and also to lead a queation ???Why???, because the function of lexicon itself to memorize or recall those words. Therefore, lexicon was influencing of fluency in practicing of words by humanbeing.
However the process of mind was always established to think something might be successfull effectiveness to improve of human??™s abilities in the communities of practice between one to another in large or small groups interaction. It has caused by rules controlled. The situation of invironment it could be supporting an interaction by politeness and also would make social class in sasak communities practice. to make clearly the language works in sasak communities, read the examples bellow:
* NNS : Non-Native Speaker.
* NSSC : Native Speaker Sasak Communities.
* Suffixes : /-z/ and /-r/.
The examples of sasak communities to practice their linguistic construction of age :
No. | NS (Native Speaker) | Indonesian language | English |
1. | Mbe kaq laezm InaqMbe kaq laerm Indah | Ibu mau pegi kemanaIndah mau pergi kemana | Where are you going, momWhere are you going, Indah |
In this case there are two questions invoved by NSSC to determine that politeness of language use which is recognized of age. NSSC is emphasized the verb laezm for the older one and laerm for younger than NSSC or the same ages with NSSC. Therefore, those are situations lead us to know every NSSC use the rules, in which verb used by sasak kawo people always put suffixes /-z/ and /-r/ to symbolized their face to another and also for additional letter used by NSSC /m/ on the last suffix is emphasized or marked who as opposed to the native speaker.
The politeness word divided into two catagorizes of face, there are positive and negative face, According to Dell Hymes at post graduate students??™ study in Mataram University was proposed by Mr. Kamaludin Yusra on his subject NT. Language and Culture, which the aim of those faces are determined the ways you speak on what you want or Ends. Meanwhile, people who are individualists could be able safety and managing of both faces meant by refusing or accepting them. Therefore, this response paper little bit shows those are situations. Lets see the examples bellow:
2. | – eak belez kopez.- eak beler koper | Saya mau beli kopi | I??™ll buy coffe. |
Somehow sasak NSSC when producing their words which very unique ways, how surprised we are in understanding those all above sentences. Here, I found NSSC not only emphesis on their verb but actually noun also. The words kopi or coffe in sasak people says by kopez and koper and its ambigue for NNS, in which the word koper meant by luggage in English and the verb beler meant by longkop word coming from the neighbour societies (Sengkol Pujut Lombok Tengah). But in this case kopez or koper on the noun and also belez or beler on the verb was actually pronounced by NSSC to show their respect of interaction based on age only.
List of words use in NSSC :
No. | NSSC | Indonesian | English |
1. | taler or talez it could be (noun or verb). | Tali, ikat | Rope |
2. | beler or belez Verb only | Beli | Buy or bought |
3. | Koper or kopez noun | Kopi | Coffe |
4. | Ngoper or ngopez verb | Minum kopi | Drink of coffe |
5. | Pelaer or pelaez verb | lari | Run |
6. | Kuncer or kuncez. it could be as (noun or verb). | kunci,Mengunci | Key and locked |
As a note on the list above, those are two categories of words emphasized whereas the noun and verb form into NSSC applied their use of first languages. Both of them always practicing by NSSC concidering of situations but not the whole words should be able to add suffix /z/ or /r/ actually. The rules here is appearance from human behaviorism while pronounciate it. No body knows where it??™s happened and when it??™s formulated. Those were misteries in the first language aqcuisition among NSSC.
Conclusion: First language is a part of language acquisition by humanbeings for communication included interaction among native speaker to each others. Language is re-producing sounds also words and representation it through human articulatery with different ways.
Many people in the world were not relized where and when the languages coming from (acquired the languages). Therefore, I assume that people from kawo village or sasak communities in practicing their first spoken language emphasis on the verb and noun formulate by add suffixes /z/ and /r/ to construction their language politeness due to age only.
However, these changes are available to take on meanings in associated with the social interaction in which to make their emergent identity meaningful.
Jenkins 1996, Eckert 2000 in Qing Zhang??™ article 2005:26. which is titled by A Chinese yuppie in Beijing: Phonological variation and the construction of a new professional identity.With download on 03/07/2005 4:21 PM Lanuage in Society [email protected]
Kenstowicz, Michael. 1979:1 in the book was titled by Generative Phonology Description and Theory. Published by Academic Press. INC. 1979.
Muriel Saville-Troike. 2006:5 in the book introduction to language and linguistics especially was titled by Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York 2006.
M.Gass Susan and Selinker L. 2008:10. In the third edition of the book was titled by Second Language acquisition and was published by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York 2008.